MVC项目结构搭建及单个类的实现学习笔记1

新人刚开始学习ASP.NET MVC,若有不足之处希望能得到您的指点,不胜感激!

先来一张项目的层级结构图:

Model:模型层,主要是各种类型、枚举以及ORM框架,框架完成数据库和实体类的映射。项目中选用了微软的开源ORM框架 EntityFramework 6.0 (以下简称EF),数据库则选择了微软的轻量级数据库SQL Server Compact 4.0本地数据库(简称Compact),Compact对EF支持比较完美,又属于文档型数据库,部署起来比较简洁。

DAL:数据访问层,主要是对数据库的操作层,为业务逻辑层或表示层提供数据服务。

IDAL:数据访问接口层,是数据访问层的接口,降低耦合。

DALFactory:数据会话层,封装了所有数据操作类实例的创建,将数据访问层与业务逻辑层解耦。

BLL:业务逻辑层,主要负责对数据层的操作,把一些数据层的操作进行组合以完成业务的需要。

IBLL:业务逻辑接口层,业务逻辑层的接口,降低耦合。

WebApp:表现层,是一个ASP.NET MVC项目,完成具体网站的实现。

Common:通用层,用来存放一些工具类。

下面是各个层级之间具体的实现,首先创建以 项目名.层级名 命名的各个层次,除WebApp层为ASP.NET MVC项目外,其余均创建为类库项目。

模型层的构建

先建立模型层,新建ASP.NET 实体数据模型,关联到已经设计好的数据库,EF自动完成模型类的创建。

数据访问层的构建

      DAL层中,我们首先需要一个方法来获取单例的EF数据操纵上下文对象,以保证每个用户访问时只有使用一个上下文对象对数据库进行操作。

DbContextFactory.cs

using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Runtime.Remoting.Messaging;
using PMS.Model;

namespace PMS.DAL
{
  public class DbContextFactory
  {
    /// <summary>
    /// 负责创建EF数据操作上下文实例,必须保证线程内唯一
    /// </summary>
    public static DbContext CreateContext()
    {
      DbContext dbContext = (DbContext)CallContext.GetData("dbContext");
      if (dbContext != null) return dbContext;
      dbContext = new PMSEntities();
      CallContext.SetData("dbContext", dbContext);
      return dbContext;
    }
  }
}

 

为User类创建DAL层,实现查询、分页查询、增加、删除和修改这五个基本的方法:

UserDAL.cs

using System;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Linq;
using PMS.IDAL;

namespace PMS.DAL
{
  public partial class UserDal   {
    public DbContext DbEntities = DbContextFactory.CreateContext();

    /// <summary>
    /// 查询过滤
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="whereLamada">过滤条件Lambda表达式</param>
    /// <returns>实体集合</returns>
    public IQueryable<UserDal> LoadEntities(System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<UserDal, bool>> whereLamada)
    {
      return DbEntities.Set<UserDal>().Where(whereLamada);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 分页查询
    /// </summary>
    /// <typeparam name="TS">排序类型</typeparam>
    /// <param name="pageIndex">查询的页码</param>
    /// <param name="pageSize">每页显示的数目</param>
    /// <param name="totalCount">符合条件的总行数</param>
    /// <param name="whereLambda">过滤条件Lambda表达式</param>
    /// <param name="orderbyLambda">排序Lambda表达式</param>
    /// <param name="isAsc">排序方向</param>
    /// <returns>实体集合</returns>
    public IQueryable<UserDal> LoadPageEntities<TS>(int pageIndex, int pageSize, out int totalCount, System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<UserDal, bool>> whereLambda, System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<UserDal, TS>> orderbyLambda, bool isAsc)
    {
      var temp = DbEntities.Set<UserDal>().Where(whereLambda);
      totalCount = temp.Count();
      temp = isAsc ? temp.OrderBy(orderbyLambda).Skip((pageIndex - 1) * pageSize).Take(pageSize) : temp.OrderByDescending(orderbyLambda).Skip((pageIndex - 1) * pageSize).Take(pageSize);
      return temp;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 删除数据
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="entity">待删数据</param>
    /// <returns>删除结果</returns>
    public bool DeleteEntity(UserDal entity)
    {
      DbEntities.Entry(entity).State = EntityState.Deleted;
      return true;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 编辑数据
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="entity">待编辑数据</param>
    /// <returns>编辑结果</returns>
    public bool EditEntity(UserDal entity)
    {
      DbEntities.Entry(entity).State = EntityState.Modified;
      return true;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 添加数据
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="entity">待添加数据</param>
    /// <returns>已添加数据</returns>
    public UserDal AddEntity(UserDal entity)
    {
      entity = DbEntities.Set<UserDal>().Add(entity);
      return entity;
    }    
  }
}

注:这里的增删改操作并不即时进行,而是在封装在数据会话层中,以实现工作单元模式,提高数据库的操作效率。

考虑到每个类都需要实现相同的数据操作,我们可以将以上方法封装到一个泛型基类中,各类型只需要继承泛型基类就可以实现以上方法:

BaseDal.cs

using System;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Linq;

namespace PMS.DAL
{
  public class BaseDal<T> where T:class ,new()
  {
    public DbContext DbEntities = DbContextFactory.CreateContext();

    /// <summary>
    /// 查询过滤
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="whereLamada">过滤条件Lambda表达式</param>
    /// <returns>实体集合</returns>
    public IQueryable<T> LoadEntities(System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<T, bool>> whereLamada)
    {
      return DbEntities.Set<T>().Where(whereLamada);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 分页查询
    /// </summary>
    /// <typeparam name="TS">排序类型</typeparam>
    /// <param name="pageIndex">查询的页码</param>
    /// <param name="pageSize">每页显示的数目</param>
    /// <param name="totalCount">符合条件的总行数</param>
    /// <param name="whereLambda">过滤条件Lambda表达式</param>
    /// <param name="orderbyLambda">排序Lambda表达式</param>
    /// <param name="isAsc">排序方向</param>
    /// <returns>实体集合</returns>
    public IQueryable<T> LoadPageEntities<TS>(int pageIndex, int pageSize, out int totalCount, System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<T, bool>> whereLambda, System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<T, TS>> orderbyLambda, bool isAsc)
    {
      var temp = DbEntities.Set<T>().Where(whereLambda);
      totalCount = temp.Count();
      temp = isAsc ? temp.OrderBy(orderbyLambda).Skip((pageIndex - 1) * pageSize).Take(pageSize) : temp.OrderByDescending(orderbyLambda).Skip((pageIndex - 1) * pageSize).Take(pageSize);
      return temp;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 删除数据
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="entity">待删数据</param>
    /// <returns>删除结果</returns>
    public bool DeleteEntity(T entity)
    {
      DbEntities.Entry(entity).State = EntityState.Deleted;
      return true;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 编辑数据
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="entity">待编辑数据</param>
    /// <returns>编辑结果</returns>
    public bool EditEntity(T entity)
    {
      DbEntities.Entry(entity).State = EntityState.Modified;
      return true;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 添加数据
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="entity">待添加数据</param>
    /// <returns>已添加数据</returns>
    public T AddEntity(T entity)
    {
      entity = DbEntities.Set<T>().Add(entity);
      //DbEntities.SaveChanges();
      return entity;
    }
  }
}

UserDal继承BaseDal

using PMS.IDAL;
using PMS.Model;

namespace PMS.DAL
{
  public partial class UserDal : BaseDal<User>
  {
    
  }
}

数据访问接口层的构建

然后我们建立相应的IbaseDal接口和IUserDal接口,并且使UserDal类实现IUserDal接口

IBaseDal:

using System;
using System.Linq;

namespace PMS.IDAL
{
  public interface IBaseDal<T> where T:class,new()
  {
    IQueryable<T> LoadEntities(System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<T, bool>> whereLamada);

    IQueryable<T> LoadPageEntities<s>(int pageIndex, int pageSize, out int totalCount,
      System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<T, bool>> whereLambda,
      System.Linq.Expressions.Expression<Func<T, s>> orderbyLambda, bool isAsc);

    bool DeleteEntity(T entity);
    
    bool EditEntity(T entity);

    T AddEntity(T entity);
  }
}

IUserDal:

using PMS.Model;
namespace PMS.IDAL
{
  public partial interface IUserDal:IBaseDal<User>
  {

  }
}

UserDal实现IUserDal接口:

public partial class UserDal : BaseDal<User>,IUserDal

数据会话层的构建

抽象工厂类AbstractFactory:

using System.Configuration;
using System.Reflection;
using PMS.IDAL;

namespace PMS.DALFactory
{
  public partial class AbstractFactory
  {
    //读取保存在配置文件中的程序集名称与命名空间名
    private static readonly string AssemblyPath = ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["AssemblyPath"];
    private static readonly string NameSpace = ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["NameSpace"];
    /// <summary>
    /// 获取UserDal的实例
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public static IUserDal CreateUserInfoDal()
    {
      var fullClassName = NameSpace + ".UserInfoDal";
      return CreateInstance(fullClassName) as IUserDal;
    }
    /// <summary>
    /// 通过反射获得程序集中某类型的实例
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="className"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    private static object CreateInstance(string className)
    {
      var assembly = Assembly.Load(AssemblyPath);
      return assembly.CreateInstance(className);
    }
  }
}

数据会话类DbSession:

using System.Data.Entity;
using PMS.IDAL;
using PMS.DAL;

namespace PMS.DALFactory
{
  public partial class DbSession:IDbSession
  {
    public DbContext Db
    {
      get { return DbContextFactory.CreateContext(); }
    }

    private IUserDal _userDal;
    public IUserDal UserDal
    {
      get { return _userDal ?? (_userDal = AbstractFactory.CreateUserInfoDal()); }
      set { _userDal = value; }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 工作单元模式,统一保存数据
    /// </summary>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public bool SaveChanges()
    {
      return Db.SaveChanges() > 0;
    }
  }
}

业务逻辑层的构建

业务类基类BaseService

using System;
using System.Linq;
using System.Linq.Expressions;
using PMS.DALFactory;
using PMS.IDAL;

namespace PMS.BLL
{
  public abstract class BaseService<T> where T:class,new()
  {
    public IDbSession CurrentDbSession
    {
      get
      {
        return new DbSession();
      }
    }
    public IBaseDal<T> CurrentDal { get; set; }
    public abstract void SetCurrentDal();
    public BaseService()
    {
      SetCurrentDal();//子类一定要实现抽象方法,以指明当前类的子类类型。
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 查询过滤
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="whereLambda"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public IQueryable<T> LoadEntities(Expression<Func<T, bool>> whereLambda)
    {
      return CurrentDal.LoadEntities(whereLambda);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 分页
    /// </summary>
    /// <typeparam name="s"></typeparam>
    /// <param name="pageIndex"></param>
    /// <param name="pageSize"></param>
    /// <param name="totalCount"></param>
    /// <param name="whereLambda"></param>
    /// <param name="orderbyLambda"></param>
    /// <param name="isAsc"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public IQueryable<T> LoadPageEntities<s>(int pageIndex, int pageSize, out int totalCount, Expression<Func<T, bool>> whereLambda,
      Expression<Func<T, s>> orderbyLambda, bool isAsc)
    {
      return CurrentDal.LoadPageEntities<s>(pageIndex, pageSize, out totalCount, whereLambda, orderbyLambda, isAsc);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 删除
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="entity"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public bool DeleteEntity(T entity)
    {
      CurrentDal.DeleteEntity(entity);
      return CurrentDbSession.SaveChanges();
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 编辑
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="entity"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public bool EditEntity(T entity)
    {
      CurrentDal.EditEntity(entity);
      return CurrentDbSession.SaveChanges();
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// 添加数据
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="entity"></param>
    /// <returns></returns>
    public T AddEntity(T entity)
    {
      CurrentDal.AddEntity(entity);
      CurrentDbSession.SaveChanges();
      return entity;
    }
  }
}

UserService类:

using PMS.IBLL;
using PMS.Model;

namespace PMS.BLL
{
  public partial class UserService : BaseService<User>
  {
    public override void SetCurrentDal()
    {
      CurrentDal = CurrentDbSession.UserDal;
    }
  }
}

 

业务逻辑接口层的构建

直接建立对应的接口并使用UserService类实现IUserService接口

IBaseService接口:

using System;
using System.Linq;
using System.Linq.Expressions;
using PMS.IDAL;

namespace PMS.IBLL
{
  public interface IBaseService<T> where T : class,new()
  {
    IDbSession CurrentDbSession { get; }
    IBaseDal<T> CurrentDal { get; set; }
    void SetCurrentDal();
    IQueryable<T> LoadEntities(Expression<Func<T, bool>> whereLambda);

    IQueryable<T> LoadPageEntities<s>(int pageIndex, int pageSize, out int totalCount,
      Expression<Func<T, bool>> whereLambda,
      Expression<Func<T, s>> orderbyLambda, bool isAsc);

    bool DeleteEntity(T entity);
    bool EditEntity(T entity);
    T AddEntity(T entity);
  }
}

IUserService接口:

using PMS.Model;

namespace PMS.IBLL
{
  public partial interface IUserService:IBaseService<User>
  {

  }
}

使用UserService类实现IUserService接口:

public partial class UserService : BaseService<User>, IUserService  

以上我们就完成了整个框架中关于User类的各层次的实现。

以上就是本文的全部内容,希望对大家的学习有所帮助,也希望大家多多支持来客网。

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