JavaScript随机打乱数组顺序之随机洗牌算法

假如有一个数组是这样子:

var arr1 = ["a", "b", "c", "d"];

如何随机打乱数组顺序,也即洗牌。

有一个比较广为传播的简单随机算法:

function RandomSort (a,b){ return (0.5 - Math.random()); }

实际证明上面这个并不完全随机。

随便一搜网上太多这种东西了,看一下stackoverflow上的一个高分回答,答案出自github上。

knuth-shuffle
The Fisher-Yates (aka Knuth) shuffle for Browser and Node.JS

下面一起看看上面说的这个算法,代码如下:

/*jshint -W054 */
(function (exports) {
'use strict';
// http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2450954/how-to-randomize-shuffle-a-javascript-array
function shuffle(array) {
var currentIndex = array.length
, temporaryValue
, randomIndex
;
// While there remain elements to shuffle...
while (0 !== currentIndex) {
// Pick a remaining element...
randomIndex = Math.floor(Math.random() * currentIndex);
currentIndex -= 1;
// And swap it with the current element.
temporaryValue = array[currentIndex];
array[currentIndex] = array[randomIndex];
array[randomIndex] = temporaryValue;
}
return array;
}
exports.knuthShuffle = shuffle;
}('undefined' !== typeof exports && exports || 'undefined' !== typeof window && window || global));

作者推荐使用浏览器写法:

(function () {
'use strict';
var a = [2,11,37,42]
, b
;
// The shuffle modifies the original array
// calling a.slice(0) creates a copy, which is assigned to b
b = window.knuthShuffle(a.slice(0));
console.log(b);
}());

Nodejs:

npm install -S knuth-shuffle
(function () {
'use strict';
var shuffle = require('knuth-shuffle').knuthShuffle
, a = [2,11,37,42]
, b
;
// The shuffle modifies the original array
// calling a.slice(0) creates a copy, which is assigned to b
b = shuffle(a.slice(0));
console.log(b);
}());

还有其它从这个算法中变形去的,比如下面这个for循环的。其它的就不说了。

/**
* Randomize array element order in-place.
* Using Durstenfeld shuffle algorithm.
*/
function shuffleArray(array) {
for (var i = array.length - 1; i > 0; i--) {
var j = Math.floor(Math.random() * (i + 1));
var temp = array[i];
array[i] = array[j];
array[j] = temp;
}
return array;
}

使用ES2015(ES6)

Array.prototype.shuffle = function() {
let m = this.length, i;
while (m) {
i = (Math.random() * m--) >>> 0;
[this[m], this[i]] = [this[i], this[m]]
}
return this;
}

使用:

[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7].shuffle();

发现中文搜索随机算法一大堆,但究竟是不是完全随机,效率和兼容性都有待考究,建议后面如果有需要用到随机打乱数组元素,可以用上面这个。

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